Kenya
Kenya - Facts at a glance

GDP per capita (current US$) - 943 (2012)
Population, total - 43.18 million (2012)

EDUCATION

Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) - 17.2 (2011)

School Enrollment Primary (% gross) – 112 (2011)

Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) – 92.8 - (2010)

Primary School Completion – 90% - 2005

Source: World Bank

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Service Delivery Indicators at a glance

 AllPublicPrivateRuralUrbanUrban PublicRural Public
EFFORT       
Absence from school15.5%16.4%13.7%16.7%13.3%13.7%17.2%
Absence from classroom42.2%47.3%30.7%46.6%33.9%42.6%48.8%
Time spent teaching (hours and minutes)2h 40m2h 19m3h 28m2h 27m3h 05m2h 37m2h 14m
KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY      
Minimum knowledge39.4%35.1%49.1%39.1%40.1%32.9%35.8%
AVAILABILITY OF INPUTS      
Teaching equipment availability95.0%93.6%98.2%94.2%96.5%93.7%93.5%
Infrastructure availability58.8%58.5%59.3%62.6%51.6%58.0%58.7%
Student‐teacher ratio (grade 4)32.137.120.83330.440.835.9
Students per textbook3.13.52.23.42.42.53.8
Effort

Absence from School

absence-chart-kenya

Share of a maximum of 10 randomly selected teachers absent from school during an unannounced visit. During the first announced visit, a maximum of 10 teachers are randomly selected from the list of all teachers who are on the school roster. The whereabouts of these 10 teachers are then verified in the second unannounced visit. Teachers found anywhere on the school premises are marked as present.

Absence from Classroom

absence-chart-class-kenya

Share of teachers who are present in the classroom out of those teachers present at school during scheduled teaching hours as observed during an unannounced visit. The indicator is constructed in the same way as School Absence Rate indicator, with the exception that the numerator now is the number of teachers who are both at school and in the classroom. The denominator is the number of teachers who are present at the school. A small number of teachers are found teaching outside, and these are marked as present for the purposes of the indicator.

Time Spent Teaching

absence-chart-teach-kenya

Amount of time a teacher spends teaching during a school day. This indicator combines data from the Staff Roster Module (used to measure absence rate), the Classroom Observation Module, and reported teaching hours. The teaching time is adjusted for the time teachers are absent from the classroom, on average, and for the time the teacher remains in classrooms based on classroom observations recorded every five minutes in a teaching lesson.

Knowledge and ability

Minimum knowledge

min-knowledge-kenya

Share of teachers with minimum knowledge. This indicator measures teacher knowledge and is based on mathematics and language tests covering the primary curriculum administered at the school level to all teachers of Grade 4.

The share of teachers with minimum content knowledge is calculated on the basis of a custom-designed teacher test administered to the Grade 4 mathematics and English teachers of the 2011 and 2012 cohort. The objective of the teacher test to examine whether teachers have the basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills that lower primary students need to have in order to progress further with their education. This is interpreted as the minimum knowledge required for the teacher to be effective and is the basis for the "Share of teachers with minimum knowledge indicator".

In addition, the test examines the extent to which teachers demonstrate mastery of subject content skills that are above the level at which they teach and their mastery of pedagogic skills. Out of courtesy to teachers, the test was designed as a marking exercise, in which teachers had to mark and correct a hypothetical student's exam in one or more of the subjects they teach.

The test was validated against the Kenyan primary curriculum as well as 12 other Sub Saharan curricula.

Availability of inputs

Resource availability

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students-per-book-kenya

Minimum teaching equipment

Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available:  functioning blackboard with chalk, pencils and notebooks. Minimum teaching resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) whether a Grade 4 classroom has a functioning blackboard with chalk, (ii) the share of students with pencils, and (iii) the share of students with notebooks, giving equal weight to each of the three components.

Minimum school infrastructure

Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available:  functioning electricity and sanitation. Minimum infrastructure resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) sufficient light to read the blackboard from the back of the classroom, giving equal weight to each of the two components; and (ii) functioning toilets operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible.

Student to teacher ratio (Grade 4)

Average number of Grade 4 pupils per Grade 4 teacher. The indicator of teachers’ availability is measured as the number of students per teacher based on the Classroom Observation Module, where the number of students is counted per teacher teaching.

Students per textbook

Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom. Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom.

Functioning school infrastructure

The indicator is defined as the proportion of schools which had functioning toilets and sufficient light to read the blackboard at the back of the classroom. Whether the toilets were functioning (operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible) was verified by the surveyors. To check whether the light in the classroom is of minimum standard, the surveyor placed a printout on the board and checked whether it was possible to read the printout from the back of the classroom.

Survey design

Conducted in June-July, 2012, the SDI Education survey was conducted in primary schools, of which 78 percent, or 239 schools, were public schools and the remaining 22 percent either private for-profit or private not-for-profit schools. The survey assessed the knowledge of 1,679 primary school teachers, surveyed 2,960 teachers for an absenteeism study and observed 306 Grade 4 lessons. In addition, learning outcomes were measured for almost 3,000 Grade 4 students.

Sampling frame

Four data sources were used in developing the sampling frame for Kenya.

1. The 2007 School Facility Database was used to draw both the private and public samples, as it was the most complete listing available, providing GPS coordinates for both public and private schools.

2. 2006-2010 Kenya National Examination Council (the KCPE) data provided pass rates on the national primary school leaving examination, which were used to stratify counties on examination performance.

3. The Kenya Private Schools Association database was used to confirm that the number of private schools in the 2007 database was close to a current figure.

4. Location specific data on the fraction of the local population living in poverty, and the fraction living in urban areas were based on 1999 data. There are some concerns about the accuracy of the 2007 school list.

Stratification

In general, the school list is to be disaggregated by sub-national strata (regions, provinces or districts) and urban/rural location. In the case of Kenya, 47 newly formed counties are now the most salient administrative unit. We categorize counties as rural or urban based on county-level 1999 urbanization; relatively rich or poor based on county-level 1999 poverty rates; and high or low performing based on county-level 2010 KCPE passing rates. These three binary distinctions yield eight strata within which to sample schools. Within each stratum, counties are selected randomly; within each county, locations are selected randomly; and within a location, primary schools are selected randomly. In the cases of both counties and locations, the probability of selecting a county or a location is proportional to the population.

Four counties were hand-picked for oversampling based on their characteristics.

  • Nairobi - as the capital.
  • Nyandarua - another urban area, but with relatively poor KCPE performance considering its low poverty rate.
  • Nyamira and Siaya - both are in Nyanza province, are relatively rural with high poverty rates yet they have very different performances on the KCPE.

After choosing these four counties, there are 40 counties remaining, excluding three counties of North Eastern province due to current security concerns. Of these 40, sixteen were chosen at random two from each of eight strata, as outlined above. In the four oversampled counties, the 28 schools per county were drawn from potentially all administrative locations within the county; in the other sixteen counties, the eight schools per county were drawn from two randomly chosen 26 locations within the county. Though there may be a small statistical cost, sampling from two locations rather than all locations is done in order to make the actual collection of data more logistically straightforward. Backup schools were drawn from each location in case the 2007 list is proven to include schools which no longer exist. For private schools, three schools were chosen completely at random from each of the twenty sampled counties, with backups selected at the county level in case the sampling frame included non-existent schools. 

Nomenclature and definition of the education Service Delivery Indicators
School absence rate
Share of a maximum of 10 randomly selected teachers absent from school during an unannounced visit.During the first announced visit, a maximum of 10 teachers are randomly selected from the list of all teachers who are on the school roster. The whereabouts of these 10 teachers are then verified in the second unannounced visit. Teachers found anywhere on the school premises are marked as present.
Classroom absence rate
Share of teachers who are present in the classroom out of those teachers present at school during scheduled teaching hours as observed during an unannounced visit.The indicator is constructed in the same way as School absence rate indicator, with the exception that the numerator now is the number of teachers who are both at school and in the classroom. The denominator is the number of teachers who are present at the school. A small number of teachers are found teaching outside, and these are marked as present for the purposes of the indicator.
Classroom teaching time (also known as Time on Task)
Amount of time a teacher spends teaching during a school day.This indicator combines data from the Staff Roster Module (used to measure absence rate), the Classroom Observation Module, and reported teaching hours. The teaching time is adjusted for the time teachers are absent from the classroom, on average, and for the time the teacher remains in classroom based on classroom observations recorded every five minutes in a teaching lesson.
 Distinction is made between teaching and non-teaching activities based on classroom observation conducted inside the classroom. Teaching is defined very broadly; including actively interacting with students, correcting or grading student's work, asking questions, testing, using the blackboard or having students working on a specific task, drilling or memorization, and maintaining discipline in class. Non-teaching activities are defined as work that is not related to teaching, including working on private matters, doing nothing and thus leaving students not paying attention, or leaving the classroom altogether.
Minimum knowledge among teachers
Share of teachers with minimum knowledgeThis indicator measures teachers' knowledge and is based on mathematics and language tests covering the primary curriculum administered at the school level to all teachers of Grade 4.
Textbooks per student
Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroomThe indicator is measured as the number of mathematics and language books that students use in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom. The data will be collected as part of the classroom observation schedule.
Student/teacher ratio
Average number of Grade 4 pupils per Grade 4 teacher.The indicator of teachers’ availability is measured as the number of students per teacher based on the Classroom Observation Module, where the number of students are counted per teacher teaching.
Equipment availability
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning blackboard with chalk, pencils and notebooks.Minimum teaching resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) whether a Grade 4 classroom has a functioning blackboard with chalk, (ii) the share of students with pencils, and (iii) the share of students with notebooks, giving equal weight to each of the three components.
 Functioning blackboard with chalk: The enumerator assesses if there was a functioning blackboard in the classroom, measured as whether text written on the blackboard could be read at the front and back of the classroom, and whether there was chalk available to write on the blackboard.
 Pencils and notebooks: The enumerator counts the number of students with pencils and notebooks, respectively, and by dividing each count by the number of students in the classroom one can then estimate the share of students with pencils and the share of students with notebooks.
Infrastructure availability
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning electricity and sanitation.Minimum infrastructure resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) functioning toilets operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible; and (ii) sufficient light to read the blackboard from the back of the classroom, giving equal weight to each of the two components.
 Functioning toilets: Whether the toilets functioning were verified by the enumerator as being clean, private and accessible (enclosed and with gender separation).
 Electricity: Functional availability of electricity is assessed by checking whether the light in the classroom works gives minimum light quality. The enumerator places a printout on the board and checks (assisted by a mobile light meter) whether it was possible to read the printout from the back of the classroom given the slight source.
Education expenditure reaching primary school
Education expenditure reaching primary schoolThe indicator of Availability of resources at the primary school level assesses the amount of resources available for services to students at the school. It is measured as the recurrent expenditure (wage and non-wage) reaching the primary schools per primary school age student in US dollars at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP).  Unlike the other indicators, this indicator is not a school specific indicator and is calculated as the amount of resources reached per surveyed school, and then sample weights are used to estimate value for the population (of all schools) in aggregate. Quantities and values of in kind items were collected as part of the survey and when values of in kind items were missing, average unit costs were inferred using information from other surveyed schools. Sources for the number of primary school age children, broken down by rural and urban location, are the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (2010) for Tanzania and ANSD (2008) for Senegal.
Delays in wages
Delays in wagesThe indicator captures the share of teachers who have wages due in excess of two months. The indicator measures whether or not teachers have received the totality of their expected wage from two months prior.