Tanzania-map
Tanzania - Facts at a glance

GDP per capita (current US$) - 530 (2011)
Population, total - 46,354,607 (2011)

EDUCATION

Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) - 6.2 (2010)

School Enrollment Primary (% gross) – 102.3 (2010)

Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) – 77.3 (2010)

Primary School Completion – 89.9% - (2010)

Source: World Bank

tanzania-edu

Service Delivery Indicators at a glance

 AllRuralUrban
EFFORT   
Absence from school23.0%20.0%36.0%
Absence from classroom (% teachers)53.0%50.0%68.0%
Time spent teaching (hours and minutes)2h 04m2h 11m1h 24m
KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY  
Minimum knowledge42.0%43.0%40.0%
AVAILABILITY OF INPUTS  
Teaching equipment availabilitynot comparable
Infrastructure availability3.0%2.0%8.0%
Student‐teacher ratio (grade 4)48.750.639.1
Students per textbooknot comparable
Effort

Absence from school

  absence-chartschool-tanzania

Share of a maximum of 10 randomly selected teachers absent from school during an unannounced visit. During the first announced visit, a maximum of 10 teachers are randomly selected from the list of all teachers who are on the school roster. The whereabouts of these 10 teachers are then verified in the second unannounced visit. Teachers found anywhere on the school premises are marked as present.

Absence from classroom

absence-chart-class-tanzania

Share of teachers who are present in the classroom out of those teachers present at school during scheduled teaching hours as observed during an unannounced visit. The indicator is constructed in the same way as School Absence Rate indicator, with the exception that the numerator now is the number of teachers who are both at school and in the classroom. The denominator is the number of teachers who are present at the school. A small number of teachers are found teaching outside, and these are marked as present for the purposes of the indicator.

Time spent teaching

absence-chart-teach-tanzania

Amount of time a teacher spends teaching during a school day. This indicator combines data from the Staff Roster Module (used to measure absence rate), the Classroom Observation Module, and reported teaching hours. The teaching time is adjusted for the time teachers are absent from the classroom, on average, and for the time the teacher remains in classrooms based on classroom observations recorded every five minutes in a teaching lesson.

Knowledge and ability

Minimum knowledge

know_abil-tanzania

Share of teachers with minimum knowledge. This indicator measures teacher knowledge and is based on mathematics and language tests covering the primary curriculum administered at the school level to all teachers of Grade 4.

The share of teachers with minimum content knowledge is calculated on the basis of a custom-designed teacher test administered to the Grade 4 mathematics and English teachers of the 2011 and 2012 cohort. The objective of the teacher test to examine whether teachers have the basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills that lower primary students need to have in order to progress further with their education. This is interpreted as the minimum knowledge required for the teacher to be effective and is the basis for the "Share of teachers with minimum knowledge indicator".

In addition, the test examines the extent to which teachers demonstrate mastery of subject content skills that are above the level at which they teach and their mastery of pedagogic skills. Out of courtesy to teachers, the test was designed as a marking exercise, in which teachers had to mark and correct a hypothetical student's exam in one or more of the subjects they teach.

The test was validated against the Tanzanian primary curriculum as well as 12 other Sub Saharan curricula.

Availability of inputs

Resource availability

resource_avail-tanzania 

Minimum teaching equipment

Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available:  functioning blackboard with chalk, pencils and notebooks. Minimum teaching resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) whether a Grade 4 classroom has a functioning blackboard with chalk, (ii) the share of students with pencils, and (iii) the share of students with notebooks, giving equal weight to each of the three components.

Minimum school infrastructure

Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available:  functioning electricity and sanitation. Minimum infrastructure resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) sufficient light to read the blackboard from the back of the classroom, giving equal weight to each of the two components; and (ii) functioning toilets operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible.

Student to teacher ratio (Grade 4)

Average number of Grade 4 pupils per Grade 4 teacher. The indicator of teachers’ availability is measured as the number of students per teacher based on the Classroom Observation Module, where the number of students is counted per teacher teaching.

Students per textbook

Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom. Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom.

Functioning school infrastructure

The indicator is defined as the proportion of schools which had functioning toilets and sufficient light to read the blackboard at the back of the classroom. Whether the toilets were functioning (operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible) was verified by the surveyors. To check whether the light in the classroom is of minimum standard, the surveyor placed a printout on the board and checked whether it was possible to read the printout from the back of the classroom.

Survey design

The Service Delivery Indicators were piloted in Tanzania in the spring/summer of 2010. The main objective of the pilots was to test the survey instruments in the field and to verify that robust indicators of service delivery quality could be collected with a single facility level instrument in different settings. To this end, it was decided that the pilots should include an Anglophone country. The selection of Tanzania was also influenced by the presence of strong local research institutes from the AERC network: the Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) in Tanzania. This research institute has extensive facility survey experience and also has grantees of the Hewlett-supported Think Tank Initiative.

Sampling size and design

In Tanzania, the sample was designed to provide estimates for each of the key indicators, broken down by urban and rural locations. To achieve this in a cost effective manner, a stratified multi-stage random sampling design was employed. 180 facilities were surveyed in each sector in Tanzania. The sample frame consisted of the most recent list of all public primary schools and public primary health facilities, including information on the size of the population they serve. Table 2 reports summary statistics of the final sample and Figure 1 illustrates the stratification choices.

Table 2
 RuralUrbanTotal
Education13248180
 
Stratification

Figure 1.

tanzania-sampling-map

Survey instruments and Survey implementation

The survey used a sector specific questionnaire with several modules, all of which were administered at the facility level. The questionnaires were on previous similar questionnaires based on international good practice for PETS, QSDS, SAS and observational surveys. A pre‐test of the instruments were done by the technical team, in collaboration with the Tanzanian research partners, in the early part of 2010. The questionnaires were translated into Swahili for Tanzania.

In collaboration with the Tanzanian research partners, members of the technical team organized a one week training session, which included three days of testing the instruments in the field. The enumerators and supervisors were university graduates, and in many cases were also trained health and education professionals (teachers, doctors, and health workers) with previous survey experience.

In Tanzania, data collection was carried out by 32 enumerators (16 in each sector) organized into 8 field teams (4 in each sector). Each team consisted of a team leader, 3 enumerators, and a driver. Four senior staff members from REPOA coordinated and supervised the fieldwork. Fieldwork in both education and health started in April 2010 and was completed within a month.

All questionnaires collected during fieldwork were periodically brought from the field to the local partners’ headquarters (in Dar es Salaam for REPOA) for verification and processing. In Tanzania, the data were processed by a team of five data entry operators and one data entry supervisor, and entered using CSpro. Data entry lasted 20 days commencing in late May 2010.

Nomenclature and definition of the education Service Delivery Indicators
School absence rate
Share of a maximum of 10 randomly selected teachers absent from school during an unannounced visit.During the first announced visit, a maximum of 10 teachers are randomly selected from the list of all teachers who are on the school roster. The whereabouts of these 10 teachers are then verified in the second unannounced visit. Teachers found anywhere on the school premises are marked as present.
Classroom absence rate
Share of teachers who are present in the classroom out of those teachers present at school during scheduled teaching hours as observed during an unannounced visit.The indicator is constructed in the same way as School absence rate indicator, with the exception that the numerator now is the number of teachers who are both at school and in the classroom. The denominator is the number of teachers who are present at the school. A small number of teachers are found teaching outside, and these are marked as present for the purposes of the indicator.
Classroom teaching time (also known as Time on Task)
Amount of time a teacher spends teaching during a school day.This indicator combines data from the Staff Roster Module (used to measure absence rate), the Classroom Observation Module, and reported teaching hours. The teaching time is adjusted for the time teachers are absent from the classroom, on average, and for the time the teacher remains in classroom based on classroom observations recorded every five minutes in a teaching lesson.
 Distinction is made between teaching and non-teaching activities based on classroom observation conducted inside the classroom. Teaching is defined very broadly; including actively interacting with students, correcting or grading student's work, asking questions, testing, using the blackboard or having students working on a specific task, drilling or memorization, and maintaining discipline in class. Non-teaching activities are defined as work that is not related to teaching, including working on private matters, doing nothing and thus leaving students not paying attention, or leaving the classroom altogether.
Minimum knowledge among teachers
Share of teachers with minimum knowledgeThis indicator measures teachers' knowledge and is based on mathematics and language tests covering the primary curriculum administered at the school level to all teachers of Grade 4.
Textbooks per student
Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroomThe indicator is measured as the number of mathematics and language books that students use in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom. The data will be collected as part of the classroom observation schedule.
Student/teacher ratio
Average number of Grade 4 pupils per Grade 4 teacher.The indicator of teachers’ availability is measured as the number of students per teacher based on the Classroom Observation Module, where the number of students are counted per teacher teaching.
Equipment availability
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning blackboard with chalk, pencils and notebooks.Minimum teaching resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) whether a Grade 4 classroom has a functioning blackboard with chalk, (ii) the share of students with pencils, and (iii) the share of students with notebooks, giving equal weight to each of the three components.
 Functioning blackboard with chalk: The enumerator assesses if there was a functioning blackboard in the classroom, measured as whether text written on the blackboard could be read at the front and back of the classroom, and whether there was chalk available to write on the blackboard.
 Pencils and notebooks: The enumerator counts the number of students with pencils and notebooks, respectively, and by dividing each count by the number of students in the classroom one can then estimate the share of students with pencils and the share of students with notebooks.
Infrastructure availability
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning electricity and sanitation.Minimum infrastructure resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) functioning toilets operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible; and (ii) sufficient light to read the blackboard from the back of the classroom, giving equal weight to each of the two components.
 Functioning toilets: Whether the toilets functioning were verified by the enumerator as being clean, private and accessible (enclosed and with gender separation).
 Electricity: Functional availability of electricity is assessed by checking whether the light in the classroom works gives minimum light quality. The enumerator places a printout on the board and checks (assisted by a mobile light meter) whether it was possible to read the printout from the back of the classroom given the slight source.
Education expenditure reaching primary school
Education expenditure reaching primary schoolThe indicator of Availability of resources at the primary school level assesses the amount of resources available for services to students at the school. It is measured as the recurrent expenditure (wage and non-wage) reaching the primary schools per primary school age student in US dollars at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP).  Unlike the other indicators, this indicator is not a school specific indicator and is calculated as the amount of resources reached per surveyed school, and then sample weights are used to estimate value for the population (of all schools) in aggregate. Quantities and values of in kind items were collected as part of the survey and when values of in kind items were missing, average unit costs were inferred using information from other surveyed schools. Sources for the number of primary school age children, broken down by rural and urban location, are the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (2010) for Tanzania.
Delays in wages
Delays in wagesThe indicator captures the share of teachers who have wages due in excess of two months. The indicator measures whether or not teachers have received the totality of their expected wage from two months prior.