Uganda - Facts at a glance
GDP per capita (current US$) - 547 (2012)
Population, total - 36,350,000 (2012)
EDUCATION
Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) - 3.3% (2012)
School Enrollment Primary (% gross) – 113% (2011)
Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) – 87% (2010)
Primary School Completion – 55% (2011)
Source: World Bank
Service Delivery Indicators at a glance
All | Public | Private | Rural Public | Urban Public | |
EFFORT | |||||
Absence from school | 23.8% | 26.9% | 14.0% | 30.6% | 18.7% |
Absence from classroom (% teachers) | 52.5% | 56.5% | 40.3% | 59.5% | 49.8% |
Time spent teaching (hours and minutes) | 3h 17m | 2h 55m | 4h 20m | 2h 43m | 3h 33m |
KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY | |||||
Minimum knowledge | 19.5% | 19.4% | 19.8% | 16.9% | 25.1% |
AVAILABILITY OF INPUTS | |||||
Teaching Equipment Availability | 94.6% | 94.2% | 95.7% | 93.5% | 95.3% |
Infrastructure Availability | 55.5% | 60.0% | 41.7% | 56.5% | 66.0% |
Students per text book | 14.4 | 12.4 | 100.2 | 16.8 | 7.1 |
Absence from school
Share of a maximum of 10 randomly selected teachers absent from school during an unannounced visit. During the first announced visit, a maximum of 10 teachers are randomly selected from the list of all teachers who are on the school roster. The whereabouts of these 10 teachers are then verified in the second unannounced visit. Teachers found anywhere on the school premises are marked as present.
Absence from classroom
Share of teachers who are present in the classroom out of those teachers present at school during scheduled teaching hours as observed during an unannounced visit. The indicator is constructed in the same way as “Absence from School” indicator, with the exception that the numerator now is the number of teachers who are both at school and in the classroom. The denominator is the number of teachers who are present at the school. A small number of teachers are found teaching outside, and these are marked as present for the purposes of the indicator.
Time spent teaching
Amount of time a teacher spends teaching during a school day. This indicator combines data from the Staff Roster Module (used to measure absence rate), the Classroom Observation Module, and reported teaching hours. The teaching time is adjusted for the time teachers are absent from the classroom, on average, and for the time the teacher remains in classrooms based on classroom observations recorded every five minutes in a teaching lesson.
Minimum knowledge
Share of teachers with minimum knowledge. This indicator measures teacher knowledge and is based on mathematics and language tests covering the primary curriculum administered at the school level to all teachers of Grade 4.
The share of teachers with minimum content knowledge is calculated on the basis of a custom-designed teacher test administered to the Grade 4 mathematics and English teachers of the 2011 and 2012 cohort. The objective of the teacher test to examine whether teachers have the basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills that lower primary students need to have in order to progress further with their education. This is interpreted as the minimum knowledge required for the teacher to be effective and is the basis for the "Share of teachers with minimum knowledge indicator".
In addition, the test examines the extent to which teachers demonstrate mastery of subject content skills that are above the level at which they teach and their mastery of pedagogic skills. Out of courtesy to teachers, the test was designed as a marking exercise, in which teachers had to mark and correct a hypothetical student's exam in one or more of the subjects they teach.
The test was validated against the Ugandan primary curriculum as well as 12 other Sub Saharan curricula.
Resource availability
Minimum teaching equipment
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning blackboard with chalk, pencils and notebooks. Minimum teaching resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) whether a Grade 4 classroom has a functioning blackboard with chalk, (ii) the share of students with pencils, and (iii) the share of students with notebooks, giving equal weight to each of the three components.
Minimum school infrastructure
Unweighted average of the proportion of schools with the following available: functioning electricity and sanitation. Minimum infrastructure resources is assigned 0-1 capturing availability of (i) sufficient light to read the blackboard from the back of the classroom, giving equal weight to each of the two components; and (ii) functioning toilets operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible.
Student to teacher ratio (Grade 4)
Average number of Grade 4 pupils per Grade 4 teacher. The indicator of teachers’ availability is measured as the number of students per teacher based on the Classroom Observation Module, where the number of students is counted per teacher teaching.
Students per textbook
Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom. Number of mathematics and language books used in a Grade 4 classroom divided by the number of students present in the classroom.
Functioning school infrastructure
The indicator is defined as the proportion of schools which had functioning toilets and sufficient light to read the blackboard at the back of the classroom. Whether the toilets were functioning (operationalized as being clean, private, and accessible) was verified by the surveyors. To check whether the light in the classroom is of minimum standard, the surveyor placed a printout on the board and checked whether it was possible to read the printout from the back of the classroom.
The sample of the Uganda SDI is given in Table 1. Overall, 400 primary schools were visited, 2,197 primary 3, 4, and 5 teachers were assessed on English, Mathematics and Pedagogy, 3,806 teachers of all grades have been followed for absenteeism (not shown in Table 1). Also learning outcomes are not part of the indicators, 3,966 primary 4 pupils have been assessed on English, Mathematics, and Non-Verbal Reasoning. It is crucial that the indicators be correlated with pupil learning outcome because the SDI is geared towards capturing the drivers of learning outcome at the school level.
Table 1
Facilities | Teachers | |||
Total Sample | 400 | 100.0% | 2,197 | 100.0% |
Ownership | ||||
Public | 319 | 79.8% | 1,781 | 81.1% |
Private | 81 | 20.3% | 416 | 18.9% |
Region | ||||
Central | 95 | 23.8% | 489 | 22.3% |
Eastern | 95 | 23.8% | 530 | 24.1% |
Kampala | 45 | 11.3% | 253 | 11.5% |
Northern | 60 | 15.0% | 381 | 17.3% |
Western | 105 | 26.3% | 544 | 24.8% |
Location | ||||
Rural | 282 | 70.5% | 1,498 | 68.2% |
Urban | 118 | 29.5% | 699 | 31.8% |
The Uganda SDI is representative at the level of five regions which are Central, Eastern, Kampala, Northern, and Western. It is also representative of the school ownership type i.e. public or private as well as of it location i.e. urban/rural. It is noteworthy that each entity has its own weight. Weights for schools are therefore different from weights from pupils or teachers. For the latter weights even differ for the analysis of absenteeism or the knowledge content analysis. The difference in weights comes from the fact that for each unit of analysis a sample need to be drawn.